Knight on Horseback

The Order of Chivalry: Courage

In a previous blog we learned about the polymath and Christian mystic Ramon Llull (c.1232–c.1315/16) and his Book of the Order of Chivalry, which became a standard manual for chivalry in the 13th and 14th centuries. In chapter 5, Llull metaphorically links parts of the knight’s equipment with chivalrous virtues.

Here Llull equates the knight’s mace with ‘courage’:1

The mace is given to the knight to signify strength of courage, for just as the mace is of use against all armor and it strikes and inflicts wounds everywhere, so strength of courage protects the knight from every vice and fortifies the virtues and good habits with which he upholds the honor of Chivalry.

The Order of Chivalry: Courage:2

All the virtues can be found here.


  1. Adapted from:

    Llull, Ramon. Fallows, Noel (trans.). The Book of the Order of Chivalry. Boydell Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1843838494. Amazon. pp. 35-39.

    Llull, Ramon. Caxton, William (trans.). The Book of the Ordre of Chyvalry or Knyghthode. 1484, reprinted Walter J. Johnson, Inc., 1976. ISBN 9022107787. (No page numbers available.)

  2. Recorded using this marvelous organ sample set and Hauptwerk. William also plays this piece live.

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