Knight on Horseback

The Order of Chivalry: Courage

In a previous blog we learned about the polymath and Christian mystic Ramon Llull (c.1232–c.1315/16) and his Book of the Order of Chivalry, which became a standard manual for chivalry in the 13th and 14th centuries. In chapter 5, Llull metaphorically links parts of the knight’s equipment with chivalrous virtues.

Here Llull equates the knight’s mace with ‘courage’:1

The mace is given to the knight to signify strength of courage, for just as the mace is strong against all arms and smites all parts, so force or strength of courage defends the knight from every vice and fortifies the virtues and good habits, by which knights maintain the Order of Chivalry in the high honor which is due and pertains to it.

The Order of Chivalry: Courage:2

 Sample

All the virtues can be found here.


  1. Adapted from:

    Llull, Ramon. Caxton, William (trans.). The Book of the Ordre of Chyvalry or Knyghthode. 1484, reprinted Walter J. Johnson, Inc., 1976. ISBN 9022107787. (No page numbers available.)

    For a modern translation, see:

    Llull, Ramon. Fallows, Noel (trans.). The Book of the Order of Chivalry. Boydell Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1843838494. Amazon. pp. 35-39.

  2. Recorded using this marvelous organ sample set and Hauptwerk. William also plays this piece live.

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