The Order of Chivalry: Endurance

In a previous blog we learned about the polymath and Christian mystic Ramon Llull (c.1232–c.1315/16) and his Book of the Order of Chivalry, which became a standard manual for chivalry in the 13th and 14th centuries. In chapter 5, Llull metaphorically links parts of the knight’s equipment with chivalrous virtues.

Here Llull equates the knight’s poutpoint (a heavy, quilted coat) with ‘endurance’:1
Pourpoint

The coat signifies for the knight the great travails that he must suffer to honor Chivalry. For as the coat is worn over the other garments of iron, and is in the rain, and receives the strokes before the hauberk and other armors, likewise a Knight is chosen to sustain greater travails than other men. And all the men who have been under him in nobility, and under his protection, ought when they have need to have recourse to him. And the Knight ought to defend them after his power, and the knight ought rather to be taken, hurt or dead, than the men in his care.

Order of Chivalry: Endurance:2

 Sample

All the virtues can be found here.


  1. Adapted from:

    Llull, Ramon. Caxton, William (trans.). The Book of the Ordre of Chyvalry or Knyghthode. 1484, reprinted Walter J. Johnson, Inc., 1976. ISBN 9022107787. (No page numbers available.)

    Here is a modern translation:

    Llull, Ramon. Fallows, Noel (trans.). The Book of the Order of Chivalry. Boydell Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1843838494. Amazon. p.69.

  2. Recorded using this marvelous organ sample set and Hauptwerk. William also plays this piece live.

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