The Order of Chivalry: Truth

In a previous blog we learned about the polymath and Christian mystic Ramon Llull (c.1232–c.1315/16) and his Book of the Order of Chivalry, which became a standard manual for chivalry in the 13th and 14th centuries. In chapter 5, Llull metaphorically links parts of the knight’s equipment with chivalrous virtues.

Here Llull equates the knight’s lance with ‘truth’:1

The lance is given to the knight to signify the truth, for the truth is straight and does not bend, and truth goes before falsehood. And the lance-head signifies the power that the truth has over falsehood, and the pennant signifies that the truth reveals itself to all, and it does all it can against falsehood or deceit. And truth is the support of hope, as it is of everything else that the knight’s lance signifies regarding the truth.

The Order of Chivalry: Truth:2

All the virtues can be found here.


  1. Adapted from:

    Llull, Ramon. Fallows, Noel (trans.). The Book of the Order of Chivalry. Boydell Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1843838494. Amazon. p.69.

    Llull, Ramon. Caxton, William (trans.). The Book of the Ordre of Chyvalry or Knyghthode. 1484, reprinted Walter J. Johnson, Inc., 1976. ISBN 9022107787. (No page numbers available.)

  2. Recorded using this marvelous organ sample set and Hauptwerk. William also plays this piece live.

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